Permanent Constitutional Debate For South Sudan

"As we debate the constitutional system of governments suitable for South Sudan, let’s rid ourselves of ethnic prejudices, assumptions to know everything..."

  By Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey

Federalism, Presidential or Parliamentary System of Government, 
The next constitution of the Republic of South Sudan (permanent).
Yesterday, I highlighted on essence of federalism, presidential and parliamentary systems of government and governance. These were the three constitutional issues considered, debated and recommended by Greater Bahr Al Ghazal Regional Conference on National Dialogue, on 25 of February. The two issues were discussed in relation to the present Transitional Constitution (TC) 2011, amended.
Of course, the TC enshrines a centralised system of government, though name: “discentralised system of government,” a version we, unquestionably and emotionally, adopted from Khartoum Islamic Constitution following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. 
Those who are desperately advocating to continue with the ten states need more investigative research over the powers of the central government and states, in order to ascertain whether such system of government is capable of enhancing the national unity for South Sudan.
Based on these facts, the Bahr Al Ghazal Regional conference was abled to rule out centralisation/descentslisation as the constitutional status quo responsible for the ongoing rebellion and insecurity in the country. This is the justification to why Bahr Al Ghazal Region Conference proposed and adopted federal system of government for a United Republic of South Sudan.
The Khartoum’s discentralised system of government established ten states in South Sudan and fifteen in Northern Sudan. Those states had no separate or shared executive powers with the central government. Such a system does not emanate from the people. It is prescribed, imposed and provided by a strongly centralised system of rule, capable of designating, dictating, dominating and enforcing policies of “divide and rule".
This divide and rule phenomenon, was imposed on the whole Sudan by the British/Egyptians’ led Condominium colonial government from 1899 to 1956; and continued by Khartoum regime over Southern Sudan from 1956 to 2005. This is the system of government responsible for the Liberation war, led by South Sudan against Khartoum from 18 August 1955 to 9 January 2005.
As we debate the constitutional system of governments suitable for South Sudan, let’s rid ourselves of ethnic prejudices, assumptions to know everything and critics on former 3 provinces, 10, 21, 28 or 32 states which lack appropriate constitutional powers, capable for distribution of political and economic power sharing.
The federalism Bahr Al Ghazal has decided upon is considerably going to borrow from the already operative successful systems of governments, in terms of politics, economics and mutual social cohesion. Those in the mind of Bahr Al Ghazal conferees seem to target: the US, the UK (local government), Germany, Australia, Canada, Switzerland, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia and more countries out there. Such reference shall enable our constitutional review to formulate and produce yet a healthy permanent Federal Constitution.
Bahr Al Ghazal Regional Conference agreed on federalism, but left the presidential and parliamentary governance open since both are dependent on “political power checks and balances” among the executive, parliament and judiciary.
For number of states, it is quite legally naive to return to three provinces of Bahr Al Ghazal, Upper Nile and Equatoria. Those provinces, along with the ten state etc., were also drawn from the British/Northern Sudanese policy of “divide and rule.” To be exact and realistic, we must build our own permanent constitution on what we believe we are. Let’s leave the would be federal states open by setting scientific criteria for a viable state.
 
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30/03/2019, 8:41 AM
 - Posted by Jacob Akol
Some comments from social media so far:

Riak Gok Majok Beny Aldo, the voting was done at the governance committee level, but then it was overwhelmingly passed by all members of the conference.
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· Reply · 10h
Robert Isaiah
Robert Isaiah When did bahr al gasal became the decision-making place where the most critical of issues pertaining to the cores & existing of South Sudan??.
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Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey Robert Isaiah: it was only a Regional consultation as planned by the national dialogue. Upper Nile and Equatoria Regional Conferences are on their way. The final national conference shall be held in May 2019 in Juba for final recommendations.
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Robert Isaiah
Robert Isaiah Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey that's a great endeavor to discuss & find solutions to the country's major issues by bringing the rest of the country onboard will be a win win resolution to South Sudan main problems through consultation. I salute & appreciate your efforts on that...
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Jacob Jiel Akol
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Mayom Deng Kwai
Mayom Deng Kwai These are my responses from somewhere? "These things don't add up as you want the government of six presidents, 100 ministers countless armed forces, 600- 1000 MPs in one hand & then on the other hand, you want ten states back! Are you serious? I mean where is logic in all these nonsensical stuff?"
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Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey Mayom Deng Kwai : too much exaggeration may not help peace. Better cool and seek co- operation and understanding. Things may improve.
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Mayom Deng Kwai
Mayom Deng Kwai Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey how are you going to accommodate those within 10 states?
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Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey Mayom Deng Kwai: Don’t stick to 10 states. You better embark on new constitution and develop a criteria suitable for creation of states. That’s how it works. Nothing is could bind, 3 regions, 10, 21, 28 or 32 plus Abye states. Please do not bother us with your 10 states syndrome.
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Mayom Deng Kwai
Mayom Deng Kwai Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey, I'm not for 10 state at all & now you have answered my inquiry! But it keeps coming back, why?
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Jacob Jiel Akol
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Deng Piol Maken
Deng Piol Maken And when people attack you that JCE led by you is the real problem in South Sudan, you wonder why. Your views are so divisive and you need to stay away from the president with your cancerous ideas.
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· Reply · 8h · Edited
Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey
Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey Deng Piol Maken: this article is my personal initiative. Swallow or vomite it.
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Deng Piol Maken
Deng Piol Maken Aldo Ajou Deng Akuey No it’s an article written by JCE founder. Aren’t you too good to believe what you really say. The 32 states initiative, how did that go?, more disastrous effects than the initial civil war. But it’s the common man that suffers.
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Jacob Jiel Akol
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Akol Akot Tong Akot
Akol Akot Tong Akot Excellent contribution!!!
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